Timeline of Homeland Security Events and Milestones

2014

Five Cybersecurity Bills Become Law

December 18, 2015: In the 113th Congress, five significant cybersecurity bills were signed by President Barack Obama.

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2014

NIST releases First Cybersecurity Framework

February 12, 2014: “Created through collaboration between industry and government, the voluntary Framework consists of standards, guidelines, and practices to promote the protection of critical infrastructure. The prioritized, flexible, repeatable, and cost-effective approach of the Framework helps owners and operators of critical infrastructure to manage cybersecurity-related risk.” — National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

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2013

Sandy Recovery Improvement Act of 2013

January 29, 2013: President Barack Obama signed into law the Sandy Recovery Improvement Act (SRIA) of 2013 and the accompanying Disaster Relief Appropriations Act, 2013.

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2011

International Strategy for Cyberspace

May 16, 2011: The International Strategy for Cyberspace: Prosperity, Security, and Openness in a Networked World, released by the Barack Obama White House, “marks the first time any Administration has attempted to set forth in one document the U.S. government’s vision for cyberspace, including goals for defense, diplomacy, and international development.” — CRS

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2007

9/11 Commission Act of 2007

2006

SAFE Port Act of 2006

October 13, 2006: Public Law 109-347: Security and Accountability for Every Port Act of 2006 is signed. Many of the SAFE PORT Act’s provisions relate to programs designed to secure the United States’ sea ports and shipping lanes.

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2006

Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006

October 4, 2006: The Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006 (PKEMRA) provided important provisions, including the key principle that after a major disaster or emergency declaration, accelerated Federal assistance could be sent by FEMA, in the absence of a specific request by a State, to save lives and prevent suffering. — FEMA

 

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2006

Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act of 2006

July 11, 2006: Public Law 109-241: Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act of 2006 addresses U.S. Coast Guard issues, shipping and navigation, hurricane response, and a number of other issues.

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2004

Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act

December 17, 2004: This act created a Director of National Intelligence to coordinate the work of 15 federal intelligence agencies and established a National Counter Terrorism Center to analyze intelligence information – ‘connecting the dots’ so the government could take effective action to detect, prevent, and disrupt terrorist activity. — 9-11 Commission, Homeland Security, and Intelligence Reform

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2003

National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace

February 14, 2003: The George W. Bush White House released the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace as part of an overall effort to protect the Nation and to “to engage and empower Americans to secure the portions of cyberspace that they own, operate, control, or with which they interact.”

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2002

Homeland Security Act of 2002

November 25, 2002: Public Law 107-296: The Homeland Security Act of 2002 established the Department of Homeland Security and set forth the primary mission of the Department.

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2002

Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002

November 25, 2002: Public Law 107-295: Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 is enacted to raise port security standards and protect the nation’s ports and waterways from a terrorist attack.

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2001

Aviation and Transportation Security Act

November 19, 2001: President Bush signed the Aviation and Transportation Security Act into law. The Transportation Security Agency (TSA) is created to oversee security in all modes of transportation. — TSA

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2001

USA PATRIOT Act

(Credit: Eric Draper/White House)

October 26, 2001: The USA PATRIOT Act is signed into law.

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2000

Y2K

(Credit: Matthew Hurst/Flickr user)

January 1, 2000: Widespread fear and panic centered on the turn of the century and the idea that a technological bug would leave nations scrambling to counteract damage done to technological infrastructure.

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1988

Stafford Act

November 23, 1988: The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, was signed into law, amending the Disaster Relief Act of 1974. The Stafford Act created the system in place today by which a presidential disaster declaration of an emergency triggers financial and physical assistance through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). — FEMA

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1978

Creation of FEMA

June 19, 1978: President Carter’s 1979 Executive Order 12127 merged many of separate disaster-related responsibilities into a new Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

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1974

Disaster Relief Act of 1974

May 22, 1974: President Richard Nixon signed the Disaster Relief Act of 1974, amending a 1970 version of the legislation. The act expanded the assistance the federal government could provide to individuals, states, and local communities suffering from disasters.

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1952

National Security Agency Established

(Credit: NSA)

November 4, 1952: The NSA was established by order of President Harry Truman.

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1952

Immigration and Nationality Act

June 27, 1952: “The Immigration and Nationality Act, or INA, was created in 1952. Before the INA, a variety of statutes governed immigration law but were not organized in one location.” — U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services

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1951

Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950

January 12, 1951: The Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950 is signed into law.  Prior to this act, there was no comprehensive legislation covering disaster relief. This act established a basic framework for civil defense, with the majority of responsibility vested in the States.
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1949

Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949

(Credit: CIA)

June 20, 1949:  The Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949  is signed. “The CIA was created under the National Security Act of 1947. […] Two years later, President Truman signed the Central Intelligence Agency Act, which authorized CIA to secretly fund intelligence operations and conduct personnel actions outside of standard US Government procedures.” — CIA

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1947

National Security Act of 1947

July 26, 1947: The National Security Act of 1947 is signed. With this act, both the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Council (NSC) were created. “In the aftermath of World War II, the National Security Act provided a major reorganization of the U.S. defense and intelligence agencies.”  — U.S. Justice Information Sharing

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