29 Nov, 2022
Tornadoes: Background and Forecasting [Updated November 29, 2022]
Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service
Lipiec, Eva
From the Background: "Severe thunderstorms and tornadoes affect communities across the United States every year, causing fatalities, destroying property and crops, and disrupting businesses. Tornadoes [hyperlink] are narrow, violently rotating columns of air that extend from the base of a thunderstorm to the ground, sometimes producing winds that exceed 300 miles per hour [hyperlink]. Tornadoes have been reported on all continents except Antarctica; however, they occur most commonly in North America, particularly in the United States, which reports approximately 1,200 tornadoes per year [hyperlink]. Tornadoes occur across the United States [hyperlink] but form frequently in three regions, shifting seasonally: (1) southern Plains (e.g., Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas), (2) Gulf Coast, and (3) northern Plains and upper Midwest (e.g., North and South Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota). Tornadoes occur mostly during spring and summer [hyperlink] [...] and usually during the late afternoon or early evening. However, tornadoes can occur at any time. For example, a deadly storm system [hyperlink] with several reported tornadoes touched ground overnight and traveled from Arkansas toward the Great Lakes between December 10 and 11, 2021. Peak winds [hyperlink] of one 'long-track' tornado reached approximately 190 miles per hour. Aspects of the event were rare, such as its timing, distance traveled, and geographic location."
    Details
  • URL
  • Author
    Lipiec, Eva
  • Publisher
    Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service
  • Report Number
    CRS Insight, IN11826
  • Date
    29 Nov, 2022
  • Copyright
    Public Domain
  • Retrieved From
    Congressional Research Service: crsreports.congress.gov/
  • Format
    pdf
  • Media Type
    application/pdf
  • Subjects
    Tornadoes
    Tornadoes--Forecasting
    Severe storms--Forecasting
  • Resource Group
    Reports (CRS)

Citing HSDL Resources

Documents from the HSDL collection cannot automatically be added to citation managers (e.g. Refworks, Endnotes, etc). This HSDL abstract page contains some of the pieces you may need when citing a resource, such as the author, publisher and date information. We highly recommend you always refer to the resource itself as the most accurate source of information when citing. Here are some sources that can help with formatting citations (particularly for government documents).

Worldcat: http://www.worldcat.org/

Indiana University Guide: Citing U.S. Government Publications: http://libraries.iub.edu/guide-citing-us-government-publications
Clear examples for citing specific types of government publications in a variety of formats. It does not address citing according to specific style guides.

Naval Postgraduate School: Dudley Knox Library. Citing Styles: http://libguides.nps.edu/citation
Specific examples for citing government publications according to APA and Chicago style guides. Click on the link for your preferred style then navigate to the specific type of government publication.

Scroll to Top