"In the early 1970s, it was already becoming obvious that a cadre of highly trained specialists distributed around the country and using RADAR could not adequately manage air traffic. From that time until now, the aviation community has relied on a growing body of prediction, planning, optimization and management techniques known as Air Traffic Management. These techniques rely on advanced automation, and the primary system providing this automation is the Enhanced Traffic Management System or ETMS." This paper traces the evolution of dual use applications in the ETMS. Topics include NORAD and the ETMS, Aircraft Situation Display to Industry (ASDI), and the Collaborative Decision-Making (CDM) Initiative.