From the Introduction: "As of the release of this paper [March 2021], over 1,200 people have been expelled to Haiti since February 1, 2021, including hundreds of children, and dozens of Haitians, possibly hundreds, more have been expelled to Mexico. Almost all of these expulsions are occurring under what is referred to as the 'Title 42' policy enacted by the Centers for Disease Control ('CDC'), which authorizes the expulsion of noncitizens without any procedural protections guaranteed by Congress, such as the right to seek asylum and other related forms of humanitarian protection. The Trump Administration's justification for adopting this policy that violates U.S. immigration statutes and its international obligations of 'non-refoulement' was to protect Customs and Border Protection ('CBP') officers from COVID-19 [coronavirus disease 19] and to minimize the number of persons in congregate settings, such as immigration detention centers. Many health experts have opined that, notwithstanding the coronavirus pandemic, denying protection to migrants does little to protect public health. The idea for the policy came not from public health officials, but from the Trump White House. President Donald Trump's immigration adviser, Stephen Miller, proposed the idea to the CDC in February 2020. Initially, CDC officials resisted, but, under pressure from Vice President Mike Pence and other Administration officials, the CDC agreed to issue the order in March. The result has been catastrophic."