From the Foreword: "Law enforcement has always been a stressful occupation. However, there appear to be new and more severe sources of stress for law enforcement officers than ever before. Some of these stresses are related to increased scrutiny and criticism from the media and the public and to anxiety and loss of morale as a result of layoffs and reduced salary raises. Even positive changes in law enforcement have increased stress for some officers: while community policing can increase officer job satisfaction and overall departmental efficiency and morale, the transition to this approach can cause apprehension. Furthermore, in recent years there has been increased recognition of longstanding sources of stress, including those that some police organizations themselves may inadvertently create for officers because of their rigid hierarchical structures, a culture of machoism, minimal opportunities for advancement, and paperwork requirements."