From the Executive Summary: " Once bitter adversaries, Russia and China continue to strengthen their relations. A Russia-China 'alliance' could directly affect and threaten the European Union's global agenda, its political, economic and social interests, and the functioning of the Union as a whole and its Member States. The Russian and Chinese approaches to international relations, trade practices, and norms of international and internal behaviour differ significantly from the EU's.  Both Russia and China benefit from cooperation with the EU, mostly in the economic domain, and in that sense are not interested in the EU's collapse. However, the two countries also pursue a number of policies detrimental to the EU's interests, security, and welfare to strengthen their global positions and demonstrate they can set the agenda."