From the thesis abstract: "Defending networks, information systems, and data within the cyber domain are a necessity for ensuring freedom of maneuver for tactical elements. Defense-in-depth and line defense are forms of defense that the Department of Defense currently uses to conduct defensive cyberspace operations. However, operational and tactical commanders do not have the authorities or means to employ counter effects within cyberspace as they do within the physical domains. Case studies of the Russian attacks on Georgia in 2008 and Ukraine in 2014 demonstrate that passive defensive cyberspace operations are not sufficient to provide protection against a near-peer adversary with sophisticated cyber capabilities during combat operations. By providing an active capability, Defensive Cyberspace Operations-Response Action (DCO-RA) offers a possible solution to the problems of the inadequacy of passive defense at echelons corps and below."
U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. School of Advanced Military Studies