When called to do so, the military assists in meeting the country's domestic emergency needs. The National Guard (NG) is the initial component to be assigned these missions. However, Active Component (AC) troops are frequently employed even when the NG among the states in the region have the capacity to meet overall mission requirements. This unnecessary commitment of AC resources occurs because of inadequate planning or lack of coordination of Guard capabilities or inflexible government regulation which precludes employment of the NG. The nation continues to increase AC employment while we are reducing defense budgets and military personnel. This paper reviews the current policy, organization, and processes for military responses to domestic emergencies. Recommendations are made to improve cost effectiveness and response time, and to reduce the AC's optempo. The proposals are based substantially on the NG's increasing capacity for involvement in domestic support operations.