From the Document: "If there is one word that has come to define the technology giants and their impact on the world, it is 'disruption.' The major technology and social media companies have disrupted industries ranging from media to advertising to retail. However, it is not just the traditional sectors that these technologies have upended. They have also disrupted another, more insidious trade - disinformation and propaganda. The proliferation of social media platforms has democratized the dissemination and consumption of information, thereby eroding traditional media hierarchies and undercutting claims of authority. The environment, therefore, is ripe for exploitation by bad actors. Today, states and individuals can easily spread disinformation at lightning speed and with potentially serious impact. [...] The following interdisciplinary review attempts to shed light on these converging factors, and the challenges and opportunities moving forward."