From the thesis abstract: "Chinese imperialism, Japanese occupation, and the sustained involvement of United States in the southern half of the peninsula, have created a strong sense of nationalism in North Korea [DPRK] that has shaped its ideological principle Juche or 'self reliance.' This policy has evolved to benefit the North Korean regime. First, it was a tool used to disengage from Chinese and Soviet influences. Then, it became a principle that the DPRK used to 'make friends' and seek legitimacy. Later, the DPRK concentrated on its military capabilities, conventional and nuclear. The result was a regime that was willing and able to sell weapons and technology to the highest bidder. In more recent years, Juche has further evolved, becoming a tool for economic terrorism. The 1994 nuclear crisis, the 1998 Taepodong firing, the suspected nuclear facility at Kumchangn, and the 2002 disclosure of WMDs [weapons of mass destruction] are crises exploited by the DPRK for economic gain. The current situation, together with Pyongyang's record of proliferating WMD technology, poses a clear and present danger to U.S. national security. This thesis explores previous U.S. policy attempts and failures, examines challenges faced by the current administration, and explores options for short term and long-term resolution of instability on the Korean peninsula."