"In a 2009 speech, General David H. Petraeus related how, during his time as the commander of Multi National Force--Iraq, he encountered a sign on a company commander's door that read, 'In the absence of orders or guidance, figure out what they should have been and execute vigorously.' This quotation synthesizes two fundamental tenets of effective leadership in a counterinsurgency. First, there is the imperative for commanders to impart a clear intent and vision to their subordinates that will enable them to 'figure out' the best and most effective means for battling the insurgency. Second, there is a need for subordinate commanders to innovate, adapt, and implement effective counterinsurgency (COIN) tactics on their own initiative. [...] This volume--based on the proceedings of Marine Corps University's 'Counterinsurgency Leadership in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Beyond' symposium held in Washington, DC, in September 2009--contains the thoughts, arguments, experiences, and observations of twenty scholars, soldiers,Marines, and policy makers.This collection presents an exploration of COIN leadership in all of its facets and includes chapters on the roles that civilian leadership, military leadership, civil-military cooperation, advisory operations, and alliance relations play in confronting and defeating insurgencies."