From the Introduction: "The United States is investing $3.2 billion over seven years in the development of a new generation of nuclear power reactors that are substantially different from current light water reactors (LWRs). One commonality between most of the designs being considered is the use high-assay low enriched uranium (HALEU) fuel. If widely deployed in non-nuclear weapon states, this shift in reactor type and fuel cycle is poised to affect the implementation of safeguards by the IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency]. This paper provides a preliminary evaluation of how the widespread use of HALEU will affect IAEA safeguards implementation so that policy makers can consider now to prepare for this future. [...] The paper includes a short background section on HALEU and advanced reactors, the key insights that the authors believe are important to consider now, and a discussion of some opportunities the U.S. might have to contribute to the international safeguards regime for HALEU. The order of the included insights does not reflect their relative importance."