From the thesis abstract: "The conflict between Israel and the Palestinians had ebbs and flows during the last century. The principle agreement between Israel and the Palestinians signed in 1994 was one of the milestones in that conflict and planted hopes for peaceful end of that conflict. The violent conflict that began in September 2000 was a bitter remainder that the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is far from being solved. This conflict began while the two participants had different intent and perspectives. During that conflict Israel had to change its national security strategy and used different means to achieve its strategies. In this paper I will provide a historical background to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and information about Israel's national security strategy. Secondly, I will explore the internal Israeli debate regarding Israel's borders. Thirdly, I will discuss former Prime Minister Barak's policy, and Prime Minister Sharon's policy. I will evaluate the leadership challenge of General Mofaz as the Chief of Staff of the Israeli military. Finally, at the conclusion of this paper, I will analyze the strategic consequences of the 'Defensive Shield' operation."