Earthquake Resistant Construction of Gas and Liquid Fuel Pipeline Systems Serving, or Regulated by, the Federal Government [open pdf - 5MB]
"The vulnerability of gas and liquid fuel pipeline systems to damage in past earthquakes, as well as available standards and technologies that can protect these facilities against earthquake damage are reviewed. An overview is presented of measures taken by various Federal Agencies to protect pipeline systems under their jurisdiction against earthquake hazards. It is concluded that the overall performance of pipeline systems in past earthquakes was relatively good, however, older pipelines and above-ground storage tanks were damaged in many earthquakes. Modern, welded steel pipelines performed well, however, damage occurred in areas of major ground displacements. Available standards and regulations for gas pipelines do not contain seismic provisions. Standards and regulations for liquid fuel pipelines contain only general references to seismic loads. Standards and regulations for above-ground fuel storage tanks and for liquefied natural gas facilities contain explicit seismic design provisions. It is recommended that a guideline for earthquake resistant design of gas and liquid fuel pipeline systems be prepared for Federal Agencies to ensure a uniform approach to the protection of these systems."
Federal Emergency Management Agency 233; FEMA 233
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA): http://www.fema.gov/