Mitigation Assessment Team Report: Hurricane Ivan in Alabama and Florida: Observations, Recommendations, and Technical Guidance [open pdf - 30MB]
"On September 18, 2005, the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) Mitigation Division deployed a Mitigation Assessment Team (MAT) to Alabama and Florida to evaluate building performance during Hurricane Ivan and the adequacy of current building codes, other construction requirements, and building practices and materials. This report presents the MAT's observations, conclusions, and recommendations as a result of those field investigations. Several maps in Chapter 1 illustrate the path of the storm, the depth of storm surge along the path, and the wind field estimates. Hurricane Ivan approximated a design flood event on the barrier islands and exceeded design flood conditions in sound and back bay areas. This provided a good opportunity to assess the adequacy of National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) floodplain management requirements as well as current construction practices in resisting storm surge and wave damage. FEMA was particularly interested in evaluating damages to buildings in coastal A Zones where V-Zone construction methods are not required. Although the NHC [National Hurricane Center] categorized Hurricane Ivan as a Category 3 hurricane, surface observation sites throughout the coastal region provided data that indicate that most of the region impacted by the storm likely experienced Category 1 intensity winds with some areas near the Alabama- Florida border experiencing Category 2 intensity winds. None of the surface wind measurements for overland conditions correspond to Category 3 intensity winds. Although Hurricane Ivan was not a design wind event when analyzed with respect to the 2001 Florida Building Code (FBC) or the 2000/2003 International Building Code (IBC) and International Residential Code (IRC), it caused extensive wind-related damage to buildings constructed under earlier codes."
FEMA 489; Federal Emergency Management Agency 489
United States. Federal Emergency Management Agency: http://www.fema.gov/