From the Document: "The U.S. Department of State describes the People's Republic of China (PRC) as an 'authoritarian state in which the Chinese Communist Party [CCP] is the paramount authority.' Some analysts argue mainland China is heading in a totalitarian direction, as it is characterized by leadership that is dominated by one person, CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping, increasing ideological conformity, and greater state control over society enhanced by the use of digital technologies. The CCP for decades has maintained power through a mix of repression and responsiveness to some public preferences, delivering prosperity to many citizens, co-opting the middle and educated classes, and stoking nationalism to bolster its legitimacy and squelch dissent. [...] The U.S. government employs various policy tools to support human rights in China[.] [...] Since 2019, the United States has imposed relevant visa, economic, and trade-related sanctions and restrictions, particularly in response to reports of mass detentions and forced labor of ethnic Uyghur Muslims in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR). Most recently, the Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act (UFLPA; P.L. [Public Law] 117-78) restricts XUAR-related imports due to concerns over forced labor. To date, the PRC government appears to have generally resisted outside pressure to change its policies in the XUAR and elsewhere that observers contend violate human rights. As Congress considers this challenge, Members may conduct oversight of implementation of the UFLPA and other relevant laws, assess the impact of these and other policy tools, and evaluate the implications of any additional actions."
CRS In Focus, IF11240
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/