From the Summary: "Countries throughout the Western Hemisphere have experienced increased migrant flows since the easing of travel restrictions related to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In some cases, these flows demonstrate new characteristics of trends that observers have highlighted for decades; in others, they evince trends that have emerged in the last 10 years. Migration in the Western Hemisphere is driven by various factors that experts typically categorize into two broad categories: 'push factors,' which drive people away from their place of residence, and 'pull factors,' which encourage people to move to a new place. Experts cite poor economic conditions, natural disasters, and insecurity as major push factors that have driven migration across the hemisphere. Enhanced economic opportunity, family reunification, and misinformation and disinformation about migration policy have served as pull factors that draw migrants to a new country. Migrants have adopted various tactics to reach their destinations. For example, observers have documented an increased use of social media by migrants and migrant smugglers, the use of commercial flights to third countries to facilitate migration routes, and the formation of migrant caravans."
CRS Report for Congress, R47182
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/