From the Introduction: "Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) programs are funded under four broad budget accounts: operations and maintenance (such as air traffic control and aviation safety functions); facilities and equipment (such as control towers and navigation beacons); grants for airports under the Airport Improvement Program (AIP); and civil aviation research conducted or sponsored by FAA. Additionally, certain aviation programs are administered by the Department of Transportation (DOT) Office of the Secretary, including the Essential Air Service (EAS) program, which subsidizes airline service to certain small or isolated communities. Civil aviation programs are funded primarily through a special trust fund, the Airport and Airway Trust Fund (AATF), and, in part, through general fund contributions. The FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018 (P.L. 115- 254) authorizes AATF taxes and revenue collections and civil aviation program expenditures through FY2023. The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act; P.L. 116-136) provided loans, loan guarantees, and payroll support programs, as well as emergency program funding, to help the aviation sector during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Additional funding to the aviation sector was provided in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 (P.L. 116-260) and the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 (P.L. [Public Law] 117-2). Furthermore, the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (IIJA; P.L. 117-58) appropriated an additional $25 billion for airport and air traffic control projects through FY2026. This report offers an overview of FAA programs and discusses the supplemental relief and assistance provided by these laws."
CRS Report for Congress, R42781
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/