From the Executive Summary: "The first U.S. policy response to the novel coronavirus was to impose restrictions on travel from the initial affected countries. As COVID-19 [coronavirus disease 2019] spread around the world, the U.S. government layered on new immigration-related restrictions on inbound travel, entry at the border, and visa issuance. As new variants of the virus emerged, this trend continued: The U.S. response to the detection of the Omicron variant in late 2021 was to impose new restrictions on immigration and travel from certain southern African nations. In addition to influencing immigration and border policies, the pandemic has had important and disparate impacts on immigrant communities in the United States. The first large community outbreak of the virus occurred in the heavily immigrant neighborhoods of Queens, New York. Immigrant 'essential workers' were hailed as early heroes of the pandemic; as many Americans retreated to their homes, large numbers of workers, immigrants included, had to report to work to keep health care, the food industry, and other vital parts of the economy going. Outbreaks of COVID-19 among immigrant workers in meat processing plants in Spring and Summer 2020 drove home the disproportionate risks of continuing such work during a pandemic."
2022 Migration Policy Institute
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