From the Document: "The COVID-19 [coronavirus disease 2019] pandemic has demonstrated that U.S. companies and the federal government rely heavily on global supply chains. This has prompted congressional interest in better understanding the role of international trade in U.S. government procurement. As such, Members have sought ways to incentivize U.S.-based production by prioritizing the procurement of domestic goods and services, while upholding U.S. commitments under various international trade agreements. Separately, the Trump and Biden Administrations have issued executive orders that aim to maximize the procurement of domestic goods and services and increase oversight of waivers that would allow government purchases of foreign goods. Within this context, Members have raised questions regarding how federal agency acquisitions comply with two domestic sourcing laws: namely, the Buy American Act of 1933 (BAA, 41 U.S.C. [United States Code] §§8301-8305) and Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (TAA, 19 U.S.C. §§2501-2581). Although both BAA and TAA have provisions that affect trade, there is a critical difference between their respective requirements. Whereas BAA operates as a 'price preference' for U.S. products, TAA establishes a 'prohibition' on procuring products and services from nondesignated foreign countries, unless one of TAA's exceptions applies."
CRS In Focus, IF11580
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/