From the Document: "Many in Congress have expressed interest in increasing scientific understanding of tropical cyclones and improving forecasts to help their constituents prepare for the yearly hurricane season and potentially decrease a storm's impact on an individual or community. The Department of Commerce's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is responsible for issuing tropical cyclone forecasts, including track, intensity, storm surge, and rainfall. [...] In May 2022, NOAA issued its initial 2022 Atlantic hurricane outlook [hyperlink], indicating a 65% likelihood of an above-normal season rather than a near- (25%) or below-normal season (10%). The predicted number of named storms, hurricanes, and major hurricanes was similar to the number predicted in August 2021 for the 2021 Atlantic hurricane season. NOAA indicated that the higher level of activity is attributed to climate factors [hyperlink], such as the ongoing periodic cooling of sea surface temperatures in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (La Niña phenomenon), warmer-than-average sea surface temperatures in the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, weaker tropical Atlantic trade winds, and an enhanced West African monsoon system."
CRS Insight, IN11941
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/