Role of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in Budget Development: In Brief [May 5, 2022] [open pdf - 1MB]
From the Introduction: "The federal budget sustains government functions and plays an important role in shaping policy decisions. In practice, the process for developing and executing the federal budget is multifaceted. The Constitution vests Congress with the power of the purse, with provisions that refer to congressional authority to levy taxes, authorize the issuance of debt, and make appropriations to fund the federal government. The Constitution does not provide an explicit role for the President in the budget process. Rather, the executive budget process exists primarily due to statutes enacted by Congress, and it specifies roles for the President, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and agencies. The executive budget process consists of three main phases: development of the President's budget proposal, submission and justification of the President's budget proposal, and execution of enacted annual appropriations and other budgetary legislation. Congress may become involved in any of these phases. Under current law, the President must develop and submit a consolidated budget to Congress no later than the first Monday in February prior to the start of the upcoming fiscal year. OMB assists the President in carrying out budgetary duties. Originally created by the 1921 Budget and Accounting Act as the Bureau of the Budget, it was reconstituted as OMB in 1970. One of OMB's primary functions is to oversee the development of the President's budget proposal. This report briefly highlights the roles of OMB in budget development."
CRS Report for Congress, R47089
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/