From the Introduction: "Despite a wide body of research on China's scientific progress, the laboratory system remains a less understood component of China's S&T [science and technology] ecosystem in the English literature. While lists of these labs have been compiled and some preliminary research performed to categorize them, the exact number and inner workings of these labs remain in many ways poorly understood. This opacity not only leads to gaps in our knowledge of Chinese defense research, but in many cases has allowed these labs to fly under the radar, leading to cases of close interaction, and even cooperation, between Chinese defense labs and U.S. and allied academic institutions. This paper is intended to address some of these knowledge gaps. Organized into two parts, the first part provides a brief overview of China's state and defense research laboratory system and examines how the various laboratory designations interrelate after 30 years of development."
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