Stratospheric Ozone Treaties and the Kigali Amendment: Ratification Considerations [March 23, 2022] [open pdf - 808KB]
From the Document: "For at least four decades, the United States has been engaged in global efforts to protect the earth's stratospheric ozone layer. The stratospheric ozone [hyperlink] layer absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation that can otherwise result in increased risks of skin cancers, cataracts, and harm to agricultural crops and marine life. Global measures to restore stratospheric ozone include the framework Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer [hyperlink], ratified with Senate consent in 1986, and its affiliated Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer [hyperlink], ratified with Senate consent in 1988. Both treaties have universal membership [hyperlink] of all United Nations member and observer states. Consistent with their Montreal Protocol obligations, countries have effectively reduced ozone-depleting substances. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the atmospheric levels of nearly all substances subject to the Montreal Protocol have declined substantially in the past two decades, resulting in improvements to the ozone layer [hyperlink]. However, some of the chemicals known as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which [hyperlink] emerged in the 2000s as substitutes for some of the regulated ozone-damaging substances, are greenhouse gases many times more potent than carbon dioxide. To address HFC emissions, in 2016, countries adopted the fifth amendment to the Montreal Protocol [hyperlink] in Kigali, Rwanda (the 'Kigali Amendment'). The Kigali Amendment adds HFCs as a new class of substances subject to control measures and requires their gradual phasedown. [...] This Legal Sidebar addresses the context, content, and legal implications of possible ratification of the Kigali Amendment."
CRS Legal Sidebar, LSB10712
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/