From the Document: "United States European Command (or EUCOM, pronounced 'YEW-com') is headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany, and was established in 1952. USEUCOM's commander, U.S. Air Force General Tod D. Wolters, is simultaneously the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) Supreme Allied Commander, Europe (SACEUR). During the Cold War, the European theater was a primary focus for U.S. defense and national security and EUCOM was focused almost exclusively on deterring, and if necessary defeating, the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact. At the height of the Cold War, there were more than 400,000 U.S. troops stationed in Europe. [...] Over the past 25 years, decisions regarding U.S. basing and posture in the European theater were designed to support expeditionary and cooperative security operations. The bulk of U.S. forces in Europe have been withdrawn and many bases and outposts were either consolidated or closed. However, two Brigade Combat Teams (BCTs) were retained (in Italy and Germany) as were some naval bases, particularly those along NATO's south, and a number of Air Force bases that were deemed critical for supporting operations in the Middle East, Africa, and Europe. [...] On February 24, 2022, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced a 'special military operation' to protect the civilian population and to 'demilitarize' and 'de-Nazify' Ukraine (the latter term understood by many observers as a false pretext for overthrowing the democratically elected Ukrainian government). According to DOD, an additional 15,000 U.S. soldiers have deployed to Europe since early February 2022 to augment defense and deterrence efforts, bringing the total U.S. force posture in Europe, including permanently stationed forces, to approximately 100,000 military personnel."
CRS In Focus, IF11130
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/