U.S.-China Strategic Competition in South and East China Seas: Background and Issues for Congress [Updated January 26, 2022] [open pdf - 3MB]
From the Introduction: "This report provides background information and issues for Congress regarding U.S.-China strategic competition in the South China Sea (SCS) and East China Sea (ECS). In an [sic] renewed great power competition, the South China Sea (SCS) has emerged as an arena of U.S.-China strategic competition. China's actions in the SCS in recent years have heightened concerns among U.S. observers that China is gaining effective control of the SCS, an area of strategic, political, and economic importance to the United States and its allies and partners. Actions by China's maritime forces at the Japan-administered Senkaku Islands in the East China Sea (ECS) are another concern for U.S. observers. Chinese domination of China's near-seas region--meaning the SCS and ECS, along with the Yellow Sea--could substantially affect U.S. strategic, political, and economic interests in the Indo-Pacific region and elsewhere. The issue for Congress is whether the Administration's strategy for competing strategically with China in the SCS and ECS is appropriate and correctly resourced, and whether Congress should approve, reject, or modify the strategy, the level of resources for implementing it, or both. Decisions that Congress makes on these issues could substantially affect U.S. strategic, political, and economic interests in the Indo-Pacific region and elsewhere."
CRS Report for Congress, R42784
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/