Russian Troop Movements and Tensions Along the Ukrainian Border [Updated January 19, 2022] [open pdf - 823KB]
From the Document: "In mid-October 2021 [hyperlink], social media and news outlets [hyperlink] began reporting [hyperlink] significant movement by Russian military forces, with limited Russian transparency [hyperlink], on or near the Ukrainian border and within Ukraine's occupied Crimea region. These movements, which follow a similar military buildup in March-April 2021 and Russia's Zapad military exercises [hyperlink] in September 2021, have come amid increasingly aggressive rhetoric [hyperlink] reported from Russian policymakers about the so-called encroachment of NATO near Russia's borders and the geopolitical status of Ukraine [hyperlink]. This rhetoric [hyperlink] has continued despite new bilateral negotiations between the United States and Russia, as well as joint meetings [hyperlink] with NATO and within the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), in January 2022. On January 14, Ukraine was hit by a cyberattack that many observers [hyperlink] attributed to Russia. That same day, the Biden administration accused Russia [hyperlink] of sending saboteurs to Ukraine 'to have the option of fabricating a pretext for invasion.' Many observers [hyperlink] and policymakers [hyperlink], including some in Congress, have expressed concerns about a possible new Russian invasion of Ukraine or other aggressive actions."
CRS Insight, IN11806
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/