From the Document: "The COVID-19 [coronavirus disease 2019] pandemic prompted many colleges and universities to introduce test-optional admissions policies. Institutions that implemented these policies during the pandemic are more selective, less expensive, and more diverse than those that offered test-optional admissions before the pandemic. Test-optional policies are seen as an avenue to increase diversity and equity on campuses by removing standardized testing from the admissions process. Research on prepandemic adopters suggests minimal gains in this area, in large part because the adopters were mostly selective liberal arts colleges, which do not need the test to parse student applications. But the pandemic opened the arena to many more public institutions with varying institutional profiles. [...] Three key trends emerge: '1. Prepandemic adopters had, on average, higher tuition and fees than both pandemic adopters and all remaining nonadopters.' [...] '2. Pandemic adopters were more selective than prepandemic adopters and nonadopters.' [...] 3. The pandemic greatly increased the number of historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) with test-optional policies."
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