ABSTRACT

Use of Force in Cyberspace [December 10, 2021]   [open pdf - 523KB]

From the Document: "There are no internationally accepted criteria yet for determining whether a nation state cyberattack is a use of force equivalent to an armed attack, which could trigger a military response. Likewise, no international, legally binding instruments have yet been drafted explicitly to regulate inter-state relations in cyberspace. Self-defense and countermeasures for armed attacks are permitted in international law when a belligerent violates international law during peacetime, or violates the law of armed conflict during wartime. However, the term 'armed attack' has no universally accepted definition and is still not well-settled with respect to cyberattacks. In addition to what constitutes an armed attack in cyberspace, questions remain over which provisions of existing international law govern the conduct of war in cyberspace."

Report Number:
CRS In Focus, IF11995
Author:
Publisher:
Date:
2021-12-10
Copyright:
Public Domain
Retrieved From:
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/
Format:
pdf
Media Type:
application/pdf
URL:
Help with citations