China's Recent Trade Measures and Countermeasures: Issues for Congress Updated [December 10, 2021] [open pdf - 2MB]
From the Summary: "Since early 2020, the government of the People's Republic of China (PRC or China) has adopted a set of interrelated laws and measures that seek to enhance the government's control over a wide range of commercial activity, within and outside of China. These measures signal the government's growing assertiveness in advancing and aligning China's national economic security tools to seek global economic, technology, and military leadership, and relatedly, control of core technologies and global supply chains. China's measures include extraterritorial reach and also aim at countering trade and national security policy tools and actions that the United States and other governments have applied toward China, such as sanctions, export controls, and foreign investment review. While China's measures mirror certain U.S. authorities in form, the government is applying its tools differently in ways that highlight core distinctions in the operating conditions and tenets of the economic, political, and legal systems in the United States and China. China's measures pressure U.S. and other firms to abide by China's policies and laws in ways that contravene U.S. authorities. Some of China's actions appear to be aimed at pressuring U.S. and foreign firms to work around U.S. and foreign government authorities and potentially violate U.S. and foreign laws by penalizing firms that contravene China's measures. Many of China's measures provide for retaliation in an apparent effort to codify and legitimize the Chinese government's propensity for trade retaliation and brinkmanship and the use of economic coercive measures to advance its economic and political objectives, often arguably in violation of global trade rules and norms."
CRS Report for Congress, R46915
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/