Impact of Implementing the Egypt Pandemic Preparedness Plan for Acute Respiratory Infections in Combating the Early Stage of the COVID-19 Pandemic, February-July 2020: Viewpoint [open pdf - 608KB]
From the Introduction: "On December 1, 2019, a cluster of pneumonia cases of unknown cause was noticed in Wuhan, China. On December 2019, China announced an epidemic of acute respiratory disease of unknown cause. As soon as the COVID-19 epidemic was announced and before the World Health Organization (WHO) announced it to be a pandemic, the Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population (MoHP) started to adapt its acute respiratory infection (ARI) pandemic preparedness plan to apply it to the anticipated pandemic. Egypt is considered to be one of the first countries to monitor infectious diseases through a national surveillance system for reporting infectious diseases; this system has been in operation for about a century. Egypt's national surveillance system was assessed, enhanced, and expanded to include all governmental health care facilities in 1999. The National Egyptian Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) targets 40 communicable diseases, including ARIs, and it includes an electronic reporting element. A comprehensive network of epidemiological and laboratory vertical systems for reporting ARIs was developed in 2009, along with an alert system for early detection of novel respiratory viruses. The network covers the entire country and comprises surveillance systems targeting severe acute respiratory infections (SARIs), influenza-like illness (ILI), pneumonia, avian influenza, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Event-based surveillance was introduced in Egypt in 2009 in response to the 2009 H1N1 [swine flu] pandemic to aid timely detection of and response to possible epidemics."
2021 Hanaa Abu El Sood, Shimaa Ali Abu Kamer, Reham Kamel, Hesham Magdy, Fatma S Osman, Manal Fahim, Amira Mohsen, Mohamad AbdelFatah, Mohamed Hassany, Salma Afifi, Alaa Eid. Posted here with permission. Document is under a Creative Commons license and requires proper attribution and noncommercial use to be shared: [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/].
JMIR Publications: https://jmirpublications.com/
JMIR Public Health Surveillance (May 7, 2021), v.7 issue 5