Identifying Communities at Risk for COVID-19-related Burden Across 500 US Cities and Within New York City: Unsupervised Learning of the Coprevalence of Health Indicators   [open pdf - 1MB]

"The COVID-19 [coronavirus disease 2019] pandemic has disrupted major world economies and overwhelmed hospital intensive care units worldwide [...]. [...] Case series and epidemiological surveillance data from the United States [...] and around the world [...] have implicated risk factors for COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality, including older age, male sex, impaired lung function, cardiometabolic-related diseases (eg, diabetes, heart disease, or stroke), and obesity. [...] Although race and ethnicity have been identified as risk factors, systemic racism and discrimination in the health care system play an important role in this relationship [...]. Additionally, racial and ethnic discrimination have influenced where individuals reside and has played a substantial role in the increased morbidity and mortality related to COVID-19 [...]. Other factors including the built environment and air pollution have been associated with COVID-19 infection and complications [...], but it has been unclear how to prioritize these associations to prevent complications. Both individual-level factors (eg, diabetes, smoking, and asthma [...]) and geographical-level social determinant factors (eg, census tract-level population density and increased household occupancy) are strong risk factors for COVID-19 infection and risk [...]. Social determinants of health are defined as 'conditions in the environments where people are born, live, learn, work, play, worship, and age that affect a wide range of health, functioning, and quality-of-life outcomes and risks' [...]. Social determinants of health can be grouped into five domains, including economic stability, education access and quality, health care access and quality, neighborhood and built environment, and social and community context[.]"

Andrew Deonarine, Genevieve Lyons, Chirag Lakhani, Walter De Brouwer. Posted here with permission. Document is under a Creative Commons license and requires proper attribution and noncommercial use to be shared: [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/].
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JMIR Publications: https://jmirpublications.com/
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JMIR Public Health Surveillance (August 26, 2021), v.7 issue 8
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