From the Introduction: "The 117th Congress continues its interest in U.S. research and development (R&D) and in evaluating support for federal R&D activities. The federal government has played an important role in supporting R&D efforts that have led to scientific breakthroughs and new technologies, from jet aircraft and the internet to communications satellites, shale gas extraction, and defenses against disease. In recent years, federal budget caps have driven executive and legislative branch decisions about the prioritization of R&D, both in the context of the entire federal budget and among competing needs within the federal R&D portfolio. [...] Congress plays a central role in defining the nation's R&D priorities as it makes decisions about the level and allocation of R&D funding--overall, within agencies, and for specific programs. As Congress acts to complete the FY2021 appropriations process, it faces two overarching issues: the amount of the federal budget to be spent on federal R&D and the prioritization and allocation of the available funding. This report begins with a discussion of the overall level of R&D in President Biden's FY2022 budget request, followed by analyses of R&D funding in the request from a variety of perspectives and for selected multiagency R&D initiatives. The remainder of the report discusses and analyzes the R&D budget requests of selected federal departments and agencies that, collectively, account for approximately 99% of total federal R&D funding."
CRS Report for Congress, R46869
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/