From the Introduction: "Electric power is generated in power plants across the country, and transferred through a network of transmission lines at high voltages to distribution systems, which then bring electric power to the many residential, commercial, and industrial end-users. The 'grid' is another name for the transmission system, i.e., the interconnected group of power lines and associated equipment for moving electric energy at high voltage between points of supply and points where it is delivered to other electric systems. The U.S. grid is aging, and one of the tools for modernizing the system is the incorporation of computerized systems that allow for the rapid monitoring and control of the equipment used in the grid. Connecting these systems to the internet has increased the ability to remotely control aspects of the grid, but this has come with increasing concern for the grid's cybersecurity, as digital systems can be accessed and controlled remotely. [...] This report focuses on the current state of U.S. electric grid security, given recent cybersecurity events. How the grid is evolving with respect to the mandatory and enforceable regulations for bulk system reliability is a key area of the discussion. Some of the known cybersecurity intrusions are reviewed with respect to the grid vulnerabilities. The report identifies and summarizes several 117th Congress measures related to improving electric grid security with regard to the goal of enhancing the reliability of the U.S. electric power system."
CRS Report for Congress, R46959
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/