Face Recognition Vendor Test (FRVT) Part 7: Identification for Paperless Travel and Immigration [open pdf - 2MB]
From the Executive Summary: "We investigate the use of one-to-many facial recognition in airport transit settings in which travelers' faces are matched against galleries of individuals expected to be present. We primarily consider the case where face recognition serves double-duty for access control (to an aircraft) and facilitation (of recording a visa-holder's departure from a country). This is done in a paperless mode in which a boarding pass (something you have) is replaced with presentation of a biometric (something you are) to a camera, representing an implicit claim to be entitled to board. We describe how such systems can fail, discussing errors during gallery creation, photo capture at boarding, attack detection, and face matching. We discuss how errors might be estimated, citing relevant standards, and their consequences. We quantify face matching errors by simulating departing flights, populating galleries with an airport ENTRY photo of 420 travelers, then measuring accuracy by running searches of EXIT photos. We repeat this with galleries populated with multiple photos per person, and with galleries as large as 42000, modelling the same concept of operations but at a centralized airport checkpoint. We report that accuracy varies greatly across algorithms, that use of multiple images per person reduces errors considerably, and that error rates when searching 42000-person galleries are often three times higher than in 420-person galleries, but still sometimes below 1%. We consider demographics, and note that for the more accurate algorithms, error rates are so low that accuracy variations across sex and race are insignificant. We include additionally a discussion of how our accuracy estimates might differ from those measured operationally due to by factors that we could not control, such as camera type and imaging environment."
NISTIR 8381; National Institute of Standards and Technology Interagency or Internal Report 8381
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): https://www.nist.gov/