Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations [Updated October 5, 2021]   [open pdf - 2MB]

From the Overview: "The Biden Administration seeks to recalibrate long-standing U.S.-Saudi ties amid leadership changes in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia and debate in the United States over foreign policy priorities. Successive U.S. Administrations have sought partnership with the ruling Al Saud family since the 1940s in light of their kingdom's large oil reserves and Saudi Arabia's global religious and financial influence. The Al Saud monarchy has sought protection, advice, investment, and armaments from the United States, looking to U.S. partners for assistance in developing their country's natural and human resources and in facing external and internal threats. U.S. leaders have valued Saudi cooperation in security matters and generally have sought to preserve the secure and apolitical flow of the kingdom's energy resources to global markets. Since 2011, significant shifts in the political and economic landscape of the Middle East have focused international attention on Saudi domestic and foreign policies and driven social and political debates among Saudis[.] [...] These regional shifts, coupled with ongoing economic, social, and political changes in the kingdom, have made sensitive issues such as political reform, human rights, corruption, security cooperation, and arms sales more prominent in U.S.-Saudi relations than during some periods in the past."

Report Number:
CRS Report for Congress, RL33533
Public Domain
Retrieved From:
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/
Media Type:
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