Supervised Release (Parole): An Overview of Federal Law [Updated September 28, 2021] [open pdf - 1MB]
From the Summary: "Federal courts sentence almost 75% of the defendants convicted of federal offenses to a term of supervised release. A term of supervised release is a period following a defendant's release from prison when a probation officer monitors the defendant to ensure compliance with the conditions for the defendant's release. Under some circumstances, the court may terminate the term of supervised release, extend it, or revoke it. Supervised release replaces parole for federal crimes committed after November 1, 1987. Like parole, supervised release is a period of restricted freedom following a defendant's release from prison. The nature of supervision and the conditions imposed during supervised release are similar to those that applied in the earlier system of federal parole. However, while parole operates in lieu of the remainder of an unexpired prison term, supervised release begins only after a defendant has completed his full prison sentence. Where revocation of parole could result in a defendant's return to prison to finish out his original sentence, revocation of supervised release can lead to a return to prison for a term in addition to that imposed for the defendant's original sentence. A sentencing court determines the duration and conditions for a defendant's supervised release at the time of initial sentencing. As a general rule, federal law limits the maximum duration of supervised release to five years, although in the case of serious drug, sex, and terrorism-related offenses it sometimes permits, and sometimes mandates, supervision for a term of any duration or for life."
CRS Report for Congress, RL31653
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/