From the Overview: "For decades, data privacy and protection issues have been sticking points in U.S. relations with the European Union (EU) because of differences in U.S. and EU data privacy approaches and legal regimes. The 27-member EU considers the privacy of communications and the protection of personal data to be fundamental rights, codified in EU law, and has established a comprehensive legal framework to protect citizens' personal data. In the United States, respect for privacy is broadly enshrined in the Constitution and data privacy and protection laws are a mix of federal and state statutes that protect certain data on a largely sectoral basis. To address EU concerns that the U.S. approach does not protect personal data to the same extent as EU law, the United States and the EU have concluded agreements to allow for commercial transatlantic data flows [...], as well as other accords for data transfers in the law enforcement sector. [...] Some Members of Congress urge the quick conclusion of an enhanced Privacy Shield in light of U.S. business and industry concerns and because they view U.S.-EU cooperation as crucial to setting international data privacy standards and countering China's potential influence on the issue globally. This report provides background on the differences in U.S. and EU data privacy regimes, the development of Privacy Shield and the prospects for an enhanced successor accord, implications for U.S. interests, and issues for Congress."
CRS Report for Congress, R46917
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/