From the Introduction: "On July 29, 2021, Ambassador Gloria Abraham Peralta of Costa Rica, the chair of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Committee on Agriculture, released a draft text on agriculture issues for consideration at the WTO's 12th Ministerial Conference (MC12). If the trade ministers convene as planned from November 30 to December 3, the draft text is likely to provide the basis for negotiations over reform of agricultural trade rules. Under the WTO Agreement on Agriculture (AoA), which took effect when the WTO was established on January 1, 1995, member countries agreed to reform their domestic agricultural support policies, increase access for imports, and reduce export subsidies in order to reduce barriers to trade. Many countries implemented such measures between 1995 and 2004, for example, by freezing subsidies, tariffs, and domestic farm support programs at agreed-upon levels and then instituting phased reductions from these levels. [...] Since 2004, further reforms in AoA rules governing agricultural trade have been limited due to disagreements among WTO members. The July 2021 negotiating text seeks to facilitate an agreement on 'principles' that the 164 WTO members could use as the basis for continuing negotiations after MC12 concludes."
CRS Report for Congress, R46918
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/