Military Justice: DOD and Coast Guard Improved Collection and Reporting of Demographic and Nonjudicial Punishment Data, but Need to Study Causes of Disparities [open pdf - 455KB]
From the Document: "In May 2019, we issued a report on whether there are racial, ethnic, or gender disparities in the military justice system. Among other things, we found that:  The military services did not collect consistent information about race, ethnicity, and gender in their investigations, military justice, and personnel databases, which limited their ability to identify disparities.  Our analysis of available data found that Black, Hispanic, and male servicemembers were more likely than White or female servicemembers to be the subjects of investigations recorded in databases used by the military criminal investigative organizations, and to be tried in general and special courts-martial in all of the military services when controlling for attributes such as rank and education.  Race and gender were not statistically significant factors in the likelihood of a conviction in general and special courts-martial for most military services, and minority servicemembers were either less likely to receive a more severe punishment than White servicemembers or there was no difference among racial groups.  The Department of Defense (DOD) had taken some steps to study disparities, but had not comprehensively evaluated the causes of racial or gender disparities in the military justice system. We made 11 recommendations as a result of our findings, three of which were enacted into law in section 540I(b) of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2020."
Government Accountability Office: http://www.gao.gov/