From the Document: "The Voting Rights Act (VRA) was enacted to protect equal access to elections for all eligible Americans. In particular, and in response to widespread disenfranchisement between the post-Civil War period and the 1960s, the VRA protects voters in racial and language minority groups. The VRA rests principally on congressional authority to enforce the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which prohibits voting denial or abridgment based on color, race, or previous condition of servitude. H.R. 4, the John R. Lewis Voting Rights Advancement Act of 2021 (VRAA), proposes several VRA amendments. This In Focus provides an overview of H.R. 4's proposed changes to key sections of the VRA, primarily Sections 2 and 4. Applying nationwide, Section 2 prohibits voting discrimination based on race, color, or membership in a language minority. Before the Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional, Section 4 established criteria, known as a coverage formula, for determining those jurisdictions required to obtain prior approval or preclearance for proposed voting changes. H.R. 4 proposes new standards for Section 2 claims and a new Section 4 coverage formula."
CRS In Focus, IF11908
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/