COVID-19 Vulnerability by Immigration Status: Status-Specific Risk Factors and Demographic Profiles   [open pdf - 3MB]

Introduction: "Foreign-born noncitizens in the United States have different COVID-19 [coronavirus disease 2019] vulnerabilities and outreach requirements than the U.S.-born population. Noncitizens are especially vulnerable due to comparatively limited healthcare and financial assistance options, lower health insurance enrollment rates, greater fear of seeking care and enrolling in public benefit programs, higher employment in high-risk occupations, limited English proficiency, and higher levels of poverty than U.S. citizens. However, the noncitizen population tends to be younger and healthier on average than the citizen population. Vulnerabilities, demographics, and COVID-19 risk factors in noncitizen populations vary with immigration status; age and sex profiles of noncitizens may be factors in vaccine planning and public health programs. Primary languages spoken in communities may also impact the design of vaccine and public health outreach campaigns. This report presents population estimates by four categories of immigration status - lawful permanent residents (LPRs), resident nonimmigrants, refugees and asylees, and unauthorized immigrants - and addresses risks each status group may face." Supplemental data files for this annual report can be located here in the library: [https://www.hsdl.org/?abstract&did=856904]

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