'Mens Rea': An Overview of State-Of-Mind Requirements for Federal Criminal Offenses [July 7, 2021] [open pdf - 2MB]
From the Summary: "The concept of 'mens rea', or a 'guilty mind,' reflects the idea that a crime generally must consist of not only a proscribed act but also a 'mental element' sufficient to warrant punishment. Three questions regularly arise with respect to the mental state required for a given federal crime: (1) whether the statute establishing the crime contains a mental-state requirement, or requirements, at all; (2) if the statute does contain mental-state requirements, which elements of the offense must meet which requirements; and (3) what the mental-state requirements mean. Under federal law, determining the mental state required for commission of a crime necessitates an examination of congressional intent."
CRS Report for Congress, R46836
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/