Clean Water Act: EPA Needs to Better Assess and Disclose Quality of Compliance and Enforcement Data, Report to Congressional Requesters [open pdf - 2MB]
From the Highlights: "EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] partners with states to oversee compliance with and enforcement of the Clean Water Act. In fiscal year 2020, there were roughly 335,000 facilities with active NPDES [National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System] permits, which are used to regulate wastewater discharges under the act. In 2015, EPA began requiring states and facilities to electronically report data on their NPDES activities. EPA estimated that in 2018, nearly 11,000 facilities significantly exceeded their permit limits and illegally discharged pollutants into nearby waters, which may pose serious threats to human health and the environment. GAO [Government Accountability Office] was asked to review EPA's enforcement of the Clean Water Act. This report examines (1) changes since 2015 in EPA's national initiatives for ensuring compliance with the act, (2) changes in NPDES compliance and enforcement activities since 2015, and (3) the extent to which EPA is measuring progress toward compliance with the NPDES program."
Government Accountability Office: https://www.gao.gov/