Areas with High Poverty: Changing How the 10- 20-30 Funding Formula is Applied Could Increase Impact in Persistent-Poverty Counties, Report to Congressional Addressees [open pdf - 689KB]
From the Highlights: "Since 2009, the 10-20-30 formula has been applied to appropriations for certain federal programs and accounts. This includes programs and accounts administered by USDA's Rural Development, Treasury's CDFI [Community Development Financial Institutions] Fund, and Commerce's EDA [Economic Development Administration] that averaged more than $10 billion in each fiscal year from 2017 to 2020. GAO [Government Accountability Office] was asked to review certain issues related to the 10-20-30 formula. This report examines (1) the proportion of funds subject to the 10-20-30 formula that these agencies awarded in persistent-poverty counties in 2017- 2020 and the effects on funding levels to these areas, and (2) how agencies identify persistent-poverty counties."
Government Accountability Office: https://www.gao.gov/