Section 232 Investigations: Overview and Issues for Congress [Updated May 18, 2021] [open pdf - 2MB]
From the Introduction: "Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 authorizes the President to impose restrictions on certain imports based on an affirmative determination by the Department of Commerce (Commerce) that the targeted products are being imported into the United States 'in such quantities or under such circumstances as to threaten to impair the national security.' The Trump Administration conducted eight investigations, two of which led to presidential proclamations imposing tariffs on U.S. imports of certain steel and aluminum products using Section 232 powers. The Constitution gives Congress primary authority over international trade matters. In the case of Section 232, Congress has delegated to the President broad authority to impose limits on imports in the interest of U.S. national security. The statute does not require congressional approval of any presidential actions that fall within its scope. Section 232 is one of several tools the United States has at its disposal to address trade barriers and other foreign trade practices. [...] This report provides an overview of Section 232, analyzes the Trump Administration's Section 232 investigations and actions, steps the Biden Administration may take, and considers select policy and economic implications and issues for Congress. To provide context for the current debate, the report also includes a discussion of previous Section 232 investigations and a brief legislative history of the statute."
CRS Report for Congress, R45249
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/