Broadband Data and Mapping: Background and Issues for the 117th Congress [Updated May 19, 2021] [open pdf - 1MB]
From the Introduction: "Mapping broadband availability, which means graphically displaying where broadband is and is not available on a map, is complex and depends on data--with the accuracy of the map depending on the accuracy of the data used to compose the map. Congress has an interest in accurate broadband mapping data, because accurate data can help ensure that federal programs that finance broadband deployment target areas of the country that are most in need of assistance. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-104) requires the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to determine annually whether broadband is being deployed to all Americans on a timely basis, and the FCC relies on broadband mapping data to make this determination. Additionally, the FCC uses broadband mapping data to direct billions of dollars per year to deploy broadband in unserved or underserved areas. Congress has also taken an interest in broadband mapping due to concerns from constituents that certain areas, especially rural areas, remain underserved or unserved. Pinpointing where broadband is and is not available in the United States has been an ongoing challenge."
CRS Report for Congress, R45962
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/