From the Key Findings: " In recent years, Beijing has increased security cooperation with Central Asian countries under the auspices of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) to insulate itself from perceived threats in the region. Beijing is using the SCO to enhance its ability to project power beyond its borders.  SCO military exercises offer a unique opportunity for the Chinese armed forces to practice air-ground combat operations in foreign countries, undertaking a range of operations including long-distance mobilization, counterterrorism missions, stability maintenance operations, and conventional warfare.  Beijing has used the SCO to gain experience establishing the diplomatic relationships and arrangements necessary to support power projection. Beijing is already using its diplomatic relationships to facilitate an active military presence in Central Asia, such as through its military outpost in Tajikistan and counterterrorism patrols in the China-Tajikistan-Afghanistan border area. Beijing may be able to replicate these diplomatic and military efforts and expand them to other parts of the globe in the future."
Federal Depository Library Program Electronic Collection: https://permanent.fdlp.gov/