From the Introduction: "This briefing paper aims to contribute to the evidence-based assessment of the Independent Panel for Pandemic Preparedness & Response, in particular in its work to ensure equitable access to vaccines and increased manufacturing capacity. 'The world has a normal capacity of production of 3.5 billion doses of vaccines and we now seek to manufacture 10 billion doses,' 'said Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala' [hyperlink], the new World Trade Organization Director General, on her first day in office. This represents an unprecedented and urgent need for scale-up, which is especially true given that most recommended vaccines require two doses, and that it is not clear how long immunity lasts. It may well be that the ramp up in vaccine production is not a one-off, but rather a new annual need. The threat posed by a pandemic outbreak has long been appreciated; pandemic preparedness plans have been discussed and, to some extent, put into practice. One concrete step was the foundation of the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) in 2017. CEPI has provided a 'running start' in responding to the Covid-19 [coronavirus disease 2019] pandemic, in particular with its rapid funding support for Covid-19 vaccine development. Another development specific for Covid-19 has been the creation of COVAX, an initiative that supports the development and manufacture, procurement and equitable distribution of Covid-19 vaccines. Further, the research and development of Covid-19 vaccines has been largely de-risked by 'vast amounts of public financing from governments' [hyperlink]. But it is already clear that these initiatives, however valuable, will not be enough to ensure global vaccine production scale up."
Independent Panel for Pandemic Preparedness and Response, Background paper 6
Independent Panel for Pandemic Preparedness and Response
Independent Panel for Pandemic Preparedness and Response: https://theindependentpanel.org/