Electoral College: Options for Change and 117th Congress Proposals [April 2, 2021] [open pdf - 452KB]
From the Document: "American voters elect the President and Vice President of the United States indirectly: they vote in their states and the District of Columbia for presidential electors pledged to the candidates of their choice. The electors are known collectively as the electoral college. Article II, Section 1 of the U.S. Constitution assigns to each state a number of electors equal to the total of the state's Senators and Members of the House of Representatives, a total of 538 at present, including three electors for the District of Columbia provided by the Twenty-third Amendment. The Twelfth Amendment requires that candidates for President and Vice President each win a majority of the electoral votes cast for their office to be elected. Candidates for the office of presidential elector are nominated by the state political parties. In 48 of 50 states, the candidates winning the most popular votes win all the state's electoral votes, the general ticket or 'winner-take-all' (WTA) system; Maine and Nebraska are the only exceptions, awarding electoral votes on combined statewide and congressional district totals."
CRS In Focus, IF11802
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/